ミャンマーにおける人材需要と高等教育改革

URI http://harp.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/fcu/metadata/12111
File
Title
ミャンマーにおける人材需要と高等教育改革
Title Alternative
Needs for Human Resources and Higher Education Reform in Myanmar
Author
氏名 上別府 隆男
ヨミ カミベップ タカオ
別名 KAMIBEPPU Takao
Subject
ミャンマー
高等教育
人材育成
日本語学習
海外投資
Myanmar
higher education
human development
Japanese language education
overseas investment
Abstract

東南アジアに位置するミャンマーにおいては,軍政から民政に移管した2011年以降,開放政策の下,外国投資は拡大し外国企業の進出も増加してきた.高等教育の改革も2011年に始まったが,大学は軍政時代に大きなダメージを受けたことから,外国投資・企業が必要とする高度人材の育成が追い付いていないのが実態である.2016年3月には国民民主連盟(National League for Democracy: NLD)による政権が発足し,以来,アウンサンスーチー氏が事実上の国のトップとして政府運営を行ってきている.しかしながら,同氏の権限の制限, NLDの経験不足と人材不足などのために行政も停滞しており,政権発足当時の期待に応えているとは言い難い.緊急の課題の1つである高等教育改革も進捗が遅く,高等教育法も未制定のままである.
本稿では,まず,ミャンマーにおける政権の変遷を追った後,高等教育の現状と改革の動きを概観する.次に,海外企業が求める人材について日本を例に検討し,日本語学習の高まりと日本留学の増加の状況とともに様々な日本企業就職ルートを整理し,人材ニーズに対応した高等教育改革の方向性を探る.

In Myanmar, located in Southeast Asia, the amount of foreign investments and the number of foreign companies have increased since 2011 when the quasi-democratic government replaced the military regime and an open country policy began. Higher education reform also started in 2011. However, universities were seriously damaged under the military governments, and have thus been unable to meet the human resource needs of foreign investments and companies.
With the new administration formed by the National League for Democracy (NLD) in March 2016, Aung San Suu Kyi has led the country as a de facto head of state. However, owing to her restrained power, coupled with the lack of experience and the shortage of human resources in NLD, the administration has been unable to effectively deliver vital services. It seems the high expectations at the start of the new administration are fading. Higher education reform, another urgent priority, has also been slow in coming and the Higher Education Law has not yet been enacted.
This paper first reviews the transformation of Myanmar governments, and the current higher education and reform initiatives. Then, it explores the needs for human resources by foreign companies using Japan as an example. In order to find out popular ways for Myanmar people to find a job in Japanese companies, this paper then looks at the Myanmar’s boom in Japanese language learning and its study abroad programs to Japan. This paper concludes by considering the possible future orientation of higher education reforms needed to meet these human resource demands.

Journal Title
都市経営 : 福山市立大学都市経営学部紀要 = Urban Management : Bulletin of the Faculty of Urban Management, Fukuyama City University
Volume
10
Spage
15
Epage
25
Published Date
2018-02-28
Publisher
福山市立大学都市経営学部
ISSN
2186-862x
NCID
AA12564315
Self DOI
Language
jpn
NIIType
Departmental Bulletin Paper
Text Version
出版社版
Set
fcu