History of Legislation on the Transportation and Rescue of Japanese Nationals Overseas*

URI http://harp.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/fcu/metadata/12211
File
Title
History of Legislation on the Transportation and Rescue of Japanese Nationals Overseas*
Title Alternative
日本の在外邦人輸送・保護をめぐる法制度化の歴史
Author
氏名 MATSUURA Masanobu
ヨミ マツウラ マサノブ
別名 松浦 正伸
Subject
transportation
rescue of Japanese nationals
US–Japan alliance
non-combatant evacuation operations (NEO)
在外邦人輸送・保護
日米同盟
非戦闘員退避(NEO)
Abstract

With the recent increase in movement of Japanese citizens overseas, the rescue and transportation of Japanese nationals overseas in the event of an emergency have come to the fore as policy concerns. This study examined the history of legislation on issues relating to the transportation and rescue of Japanese nationals overseas and analyzed whether the current legislative framework would enable the Japanese government to adequately protect the lives and property of Japanese citizens abroad. Since the Cold War, the Japanese government has adapted its policy and established legislation on the transportation and rescue of Japanese nationals overseas in response to changes in the prevailing security landscape, the United States (US)– Japan alliance, and domestic public opinion. This can be seen in developments such as the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation and Security between the US and Japan (US–Japan Security Treaty), the Guidelines for Japan–US Defense Cooperation, the Iran–Iraq War, the North Korean nuclear crisis (1993–1994), and the Japan–US Joint Declaration on Security: Alliance for the 21st Century. In 2015, following the adoption of Japan’s Legislation for Peace and Security, Article 84, Section 3 of the Self-Defense Forces Law on the “rescue of Japanese nationals abroad and others,” which enables Japanese nationals at risk of life or limb to be guarded or rescued, was newly established in addition to Article 84, Section 4 on the “transportation of Japanese nationals abroad and others.” However, since the “three conditions” that must be met if measures to rescue Japanese nationals overseas and others are to be applied are more stringent than those of other countries, responding to real security challenges continues to prove difficult for the Japanese government. Thus, under the current legal system centered on non-combatant evacuation operations by the Japan Self-Defense Forces, it would be difficult to successfully rescue and transport Japanese nationals overseas, not only in cases where the number of individuals affected was relatively low but also in the event of an emergency on the Korean Peninsula or around Taiwan in which more people were involved.

 近年,多数の邦人が海外に進出する中で,有事の際に,在外国民をいかに保護するのかという問題が政策争点として浮上している.そこで,本研究では,日本の在外邦人輸送・保護問題をめぐる法制度化の歴史を明らかにし,日本政府が,現在の法的枠組みの下で,在外邦人の生命・財産を適切に保護することができるのか分析した.冷戦期以降,日本政府は,日米安保改定,日米防衛協力のための指針,イラン・イラク戦争,第一次朝鮮半島核危機,日米安全保障条約共同宣言等に見られる通り,時々の安全保障環境,日米同盟,国内世論の変化に応じて,在外邦人輸送・保護措置に関する政策を調整し法整備を進めてきた.2015年には,平和安保法制が可決したことを受けて,在外邦人等の輸送を可能にする自衛隊法第84条の4「在外邦人等の輸送措置」だけでなく,生命又は身体に危害が加えられるおそれがある在外邦人等について,警護や救出などを可能にする自衛隊法第84条の3「在外邦人等の保護措置」が新設された.だが,「在外邦人等の保護措置」の適用基準である3要件が諸外国と比較して厳格であることから,日本政府が現実の安全保障環境に十分対応することが困難な状況が続いている.以上のことから,自衛隊による非戦闘員退避活動をめぐる現在の法制度では,比較的少数の在外邦人輸送は勿論,朝鮮半島有事や台湾有事といった,より大規模な邦人輸送や保護を実現することは困難である.

Journal Title
都市経営 : 福山市立大学都市経営学部紀要 = Urban Management : Bulletin of the Faculty of Urban Management, Fukuyama City University
Volume
14
Spage
149
Epage
164
Published Date
2022-03-07
Publisher
福山市立大学都市経営学部
ISSN
2186-862x
NCID
AA12564315
Self DOI
Language
jpn
NIIType
Departmental Bulletin Paper
Text Version
出版社版
Set
fcu