米戦略爆撃調査団報告書の<原爆不要論> : 原爆投下論争の研究史から見るその役割と意義

URI http://harp.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/hiroshima-cu/metadata/12165
File
Title
米戦略爆撃調査団報告書の<原爆不要論> : 原爆投下論争の研究史から見るその役割と意義
Title Alternative
The U. S. Strategic Bombing Survey’s Early-Surrender Conclusion and the Debate over the Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
Author
氏名 繁沢 敦子
ヨミ シゲサワ アツコ
別名 SHIGESAWA Atsuko
Subject
米戦略爆撃調査団(USSBS)
原爆論争
原爆不要論
日本の降伏要因
スミソニアン航空宇宙博物館
原爆外交
原爆展
Abstract

The United States Strategic Bombing Survey (USSBS) conducted most of its survey from October to December 1945 to evaluate various aspects of the effects inflicted by American air power during World War II. While results of its vast work—a total of 108 reports—are hard to grasp, with most of its reports and supporting documents remaining classified in the U. S. National Archives in Washington until the 1970s, a conclusion in its two most important reports—Summary Report and Japan’s Struggle to End the War—both published in July 1946 from the Chairman’s Office has often been cited and referred to mostly by so-called revisionists who are critical about the decision to drop the atomic bomb in the Summer of 1945.
The statement—“…certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to 1 November 1945, Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated” (italics author’s)—continues to appear in the controversy over the use of the atomic bomb. Some scholars argue that the opinion is unreliable for it was conceived by Paul H. Nitze—eventual Director of the State Department’s Policy Planning Staff (PPS) and the principal author of National Security Council Paper 68 (NSC-68)—who wrote the Summary Report but did not properly use interrogations of Japanese officials as evidence.
In the present essay, the author explores the history of preceding studies about the decision to drop the atomic bomb and examines the role the abovementioned conclusion has played in different arguments. She also atlempts to compare the ways it is used and traces the change in the way it is treated in the discourse.

Description Peer Reviewed
Journal Title
広島国際研究 = Hiroshima Journal of International Studies
Volume
19
Spage
1
Epage
19
Published Date
2013-11-30
Publisher
広島市立大学国際学部
ISSN
1341-3546
NCID
AN10485683
Language
jpn
NIIType
Journal Article
Text Version
出版社版
Set
hiroshima-cu