Previous research on writing shows that the composing processes consist of three major subprocesses, i.e. planning, translating and revising. Planning processes are indispensable to writing because they include not only the processes of organizing ideas and setting goals, but also of generating contents. 13;
Differences in planning processes are also related to different levels of writing abilities. Good writers plan in various ways: retrieving ideas from long-term memory, creating goals, organizing ideas, and thinking about potential readers' expectations and discourse structures. In contrast, poor writers tend to be exclusively concerned with mechanics such as spelling or linguistic rules. Poor writers' planning lacks higher-level plans or goals compared with good writers' plans. 13;
Although many researchers point out that the planning stage is the crucial factor for good writing, the writing process models presented so far provide only insufficient description of planning processes. In these models, mental and physical aspects of planning are not adequately presented. Planning is treated simply as an invisible mental phenomenon, so that the process of planning activities through the interaction of written ideas and thought is not well described. However, the interaction between thought and written language during planning can be frequently observed in the thinking-aloud protocol during composing. Therefore, it is impossible to have a proper understanding of planning processes without considering the influence of written language on planning and the interaction between written ideas and thought. 13;
The purpose of this paper is to construct a model of the planning process. The unique features of this model are as follows:13;
1. The mental and physical aspects of planning processes are presented. 13;
2. The differences of planning processes by mature and immature writers are explained. 13;
Producing connected written texts involves complex cognitive operations. In addition, during composing, writers not only perform mental operations but interact with previously written sentences at various stages of their composing. Thus, since written language influences a writer's planning, the act of planning should not be confined solely to a mental operation. The planning process model presented here can describe the act of planning as a physical operation as well as a mental operation. 13;
The model can offer a basis for investigating how arranging the ideas visibly on paper instead of in a limited workspace of working memory influences final products, and can also provide a theoretical foundation for pedagogical practices.