A Japanese linguist, Katsuhiko Tanaka says that Noam Chomsky interprets meanings of words without considering contexts, in which words are used. Furthermore, he claims that Chomsky derives meanings of words from deep structures. But according to Tanaka, deep structures are determined by extra-linguistic factors such as culture, situations, expectations and so on. So if Tanaka is correct, we cannot interpret meanings only from deep structures. Moreover, Tanaka insists that grammar is in language and is derived from language although Chomsky claims that grammar generates language. Tanaka’s thought about language is similar to Roy Harris’s integrational linguistics, according to which language is a medium that enables linguistic communication to be successful among people in communities. Harris also insists that words do not have any meanings at all just as the Keynesians claim that money, whether coins or bills, does not have any value at all.
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